Trying Something New

August 11, 2009

In recording and pro-audio it’s all too easy to fall into a rut and never try new things. You have found a variety of mics that you like for certain instruments, particular pieces of outboard gear you always fall back on, and mixing techniques that you constantly use.

There are a number of reasons for that, of course. The biggest is probably time, which often equals money. In live situations, there usually simply isn’t time to experiment, unless you are fortunate enough to work with an act big enough where you can have technical rehearsals and full-blown dress rehearsals. In the studio, you are most likely working with a band who is under very tight budget constraints, and that is not conducive to being able to spend time trying different things.

When you have the time, though, it can be extremely rewarding, and can result in some stunning results.

There is also a trend started by some “how to” books to sort of ‘mix-by-numbers.’ They tell you that the kick drum should be at about -3VU on the stereo bus meters, and the lead vocals should be -5VU, or some such thing. Nonsense. Only your ears can tell you how loud something needs to be in the mix. There are some shortcuts you can sometimes take. For example, if you’ve mix a particular band often enough, you usually have a pretty good idea of where things are going to be panned, so it wouldn’t hurt to set the pan pots where you think they’ll end up. But, don’t be afraid to play around with those while you are mixing. You just might find a location for something in the stereo spread that works better for that particular mix. There are a lot of very stunning effects that can be accomplished with phase, delay, and panning, and you will never stumble across any of them if you don’t take the time to try something new.

Sometimes your mic selection and placement has gotten to be such a habit, that you don’t even consider something really different. The absolute best cranked Les Paul/Marshall tone I’ve ever heard was accomplished by a mic selection and mic placement that I NEVER would have tried. But someone took the time to try it, and found that it really worked.

Another, often ignored reason is that digital equipment makes it difficult, if not impossible, to do much “creative patching.” In the old days, you had a patch bay, with a number of mult points, and you could patch anything to anywhere, combining with other things or splitting the signal along the way. With a digital multi-effect unit, this is simply not possible. Most digital mixers and digital audio workstations impose rather rigid signal flow ideas. Beyond that, it is simply not possible to really explore parameters of the equipment that weren’t programmed into it by the developers.

But whatever your situation, try different things. The next time you are tracking a guitar, use your regular mic and placement, but also set up a completely different mic, and use a different placement. Record it on a separate track so that if you don’t like it, you haven’t cost anything, and compare the two. You might just find that it offers something you didn’t expect, and maybe something you can use alongside the other track in the mix.


Digital Doo-Dads

June 23, 2009

Every time I listen to a digital gadget at the local music store, I am overwhelmed by the mushiness of the patches. Or, maybe a better way to put it is that I am underwhelmed with the usefulness of the gadget. If you assume that the factory patches are the best that it can sound, you probably won’t buy it. Be assured that these factory patches aren’t representative, and are probably almost the worst that it can sound.

Plug a guitar into the latest whiz-bang modeler, select any of the factory patches, and you will assaulted by the combination of every effect known to mankind. All at once. With NO dynamics. How can the people who make these things go to all the trouble to “model” all of those vintage effects pedals and amps, and then have NO CLUE as to what they should sound like when you use them?

This holds true on the guitar modelers as well as digital synthesizers. I’m not saying that they CAN’T sound good. Some of them are capable of sounding very good indeed. It’s just that, if you expect to unpack the thing, select a factory preset, and have it sound good in your band’s mix, you are in for a big disappointment.

There are examples of this in all of them, but one standard factory preset on guitar modelers that seems to transcend brand name is the heavily distorted AND highly compressed patch, with a ton of fizzy distortion, always a lot of chorus, some reverb, and a really scooped EQ. It might sound fun in a music store through some little transistor amp played at 60dB, but it’s not going to work through a 4×12 cabinet, crunched tube amp, played at 110dB, and it’s CERTAINLY not going to fit in the mix. Because of all of the extra compression and time-based effects such as chorus and flanging they always add, there will be NO articulation and dynamics.

But, if you build your own patches from scratch, you can come up with some good sounds. Don’t expect them to sound exactly like your guitar through a cranked Marshall with a pair of 4×12 cabinets, for example, but you can create some patches that sound good in their own right, are quite useful, and will sit well in a mix.

The same holds true for digital synthesizers. You sit down in the local music store to try one out, and every factory patch sounds lush, rich, and full. And almost totally useless in a band setting.

However, if you take the time to learn how to build your own patches, you will probably find that the raw samples and waveforms are pretty usable, and some very good sounding patches can be built from scratch, which are extremely good, are more realistic, and will work well in a mix.

There is something else to consider in the synthesizer patches that claim to be realistic samples of real instruments – and that is that they almost always far less high end and upper midrange than in the real instrument. This adds to the difficulty of getting your instrument to fit in the mix. There are other limitations which, in my mind, are design flaws. One of these is the stubborn refusal by synthesizer makers to put effects in a logical place in the signal chain. A great example of this, and the one that is a huge limitation on Roland synthesizers such as the JV-1080 and XP-50, is Roland’s insistence that a Leslie is an “effect” rather than a “speaker.” As anyone who has ever played a Hammond Organ knows, a Leslie is a SPEAKER, and is therefore the last thing in the audio chain – AFTER the amplifier. The Roland Leslie simulator is not too bad, but by putting it so early in the chain, they’ve made it almost useless. It is such things that make building good patches a real challenge sometimes.

While you can get some patches that will, in a mix, sound “kind of like” another instrument, such as, say, a trumpet; there are some instruments which you will never get close to, no matter how much time you spend creating a patch. A great example of this would be, of course, guitar.

So, know the limitations of the technology and your equipment, take the time to build your own patches, and you will get some very usable patches. Don’t expect to fool anyone into thinking that they are listening to a real vintage synth, a real orchestra, or a real guitar. Just get sounds that will accomplish the same purpose, and that sound good in the mix.

After all, the mix is what’s important. Nobody cares what an instrument sounds like soloed, because nobody but you can solo it. Everyone else in the world will only hear it in the mix.

Social Commentary in Music

April 22, 2009

I’ve been an avid listener to music since I was about 10 years old. My parents listened to Big Band music (Glenn Miller, Dorsey Brothers, etc) a lot when I was young, so it’s been a part of my life as long as I can remember, but when I listened to my favorite type of music as a teenager, I quickly noticed something: there was almost always ‘social commentary.’ I don’t mean ‘teenage angst’ or love songs, or party songs – those things were present in the Big Band music of my parents (they didn’t listen to Cab Calloway).

I liked rock music. Specifically, what we called “hard rock.” A good portion of that music talked about government oppression, but even more devoted itself solely to the war (Vietnam, for you youngsters out there), or to the draft, racial and gender discrimination, unjust laws, unjust taxation, an out of control federal government, and a host of other societal problems. In many of the songs, there was anger. In fact, in many of the songs, there was a LOT of anger. But it was focused. There were also protests – a lot of them. They weren’t usually polite affairs, with proper government-issued ‘permits.’ In fact, if you had suggested that they ask the government for permission to protest, you would have been laughed out of the room.

And things changed. People came to see the war in Vietnam as the injustice it was. Gender and racial discrimination were tackled. The draft was eliminated. When the war and the draft were no longer an issue, most of the people in that generation basked in a brief glow of satisfaction, and then immediately went on to other things, like having a life, raising a family, a real job, etc.

Fast forward several decades, and now we once again have a war on foreign soil (two fronts this time), there is talk of mandatory ‘national service’ ( a draft, by any other name is just as repressive, and this one will be gender-blind), global narco-wars, fueled by the enormous profits created mostly by US drug laws, which has made it so profitable that entire countries have been corrupted simply by the huge profits to be had in the growing, manufacturing, transportation, and selling of the stuff.

Where is the social commentary? I see a lot of young white guys driving BMWs blaring rap “music,” and singing along about how bad it is to be a poverty-striken black youth in the inner city. Of course, the white guys in the BMWs are usually pulling up in front of a GAP store to get a new pair of $200 jeans, but the irony never seems to sink in. I see teenage white girls singing rap lyrics about how thrilled they are to be a young black drug dealer who shoots other black guys for fun before raping his girlfriend.

What I DON’T hear is music expressing anger against the war in Iraq, or the war in Afghanistan. I don’t even hear music expressing outrage over 9/11. Why? I wish I knew.

My band did a “protest song” a couple of years ago. I don’t want to think that only a bunch of guys over 50 are pissed off enough to write protest songs.

Audio Purists

March 20, 2009

There is a group of sound guys I call “audio purists.” These are people who eschew anything which colors the sound, such as EQ. To them, “purity” of sound is the ultimate goal, above all else.

All EQ colors the sound, not only by varying the frequency response, but also, as a side effect, affecting the phase angle at certain frequencies. This is most apparent when boosting frequencies, and, in extreme amounts causes “ringing,” or resonance at the boost frequency. While this is clearly heard at extreme levels of boost, it is present to some degree at more moderate amounts of boost. This is what purists object to.

Because of this, a “purist” will, when using the 31 band EQ to tune the system, only use it to cut frequencies. In fact, there are a few graphic EQs on the market that are “cut-only.” They do not boost at all. In theory, this should be a good idea. But, what of a situation, where the system sounds pretty good, but has one frequency area that is slightly lower in response to the rest of the spectrum? Most people would simply use the 1/3 octave to boost those few frequencies the 1 or 2 dB needed to smooth things out. The “purist,” however, would prefer to cut all other frequencies, to avoid boosting any band. However, one thing often overlooked is that cutting adjacent bands does NOT result in a flat response. For example, if you cut every band on a graphic EQ by 3dB, the resulting curve would not be a flat response which was simply 3dB lower than the input. Each band has the most affect at its center frequency, and gradual shoulders which boost or cut less and less the further from the center frequency you get. Also, phase shift problems are most apparent in these “shoulder” areas. These shoulder areas are additive, which means that the cut (or boost) of two adjacent bands combine where the shoulders of the filters for those two bands overlap. Therefore, the result from pulling every band down 3dB would be a response which was down 3dB at each center frequency, with ‘ripples’ between bands of lesser or more attenuation. In addition, there would be phase shifts across the entire spectrum. The end result is that, to avoid boosting in one small area of the frequency range, you would be introducing an odd frequency response in the entire spectrum which would be filled with phase anomalies. This in the name of “audio purity?”

A related thought is that they will refrain from using any (ANY!) channel EQ. In fact, they will switch it out of the circuit. This idea actually has some merit, of not carried to the extreme. Their thinking is that EQ is bad, for the reasons I stated above, and since they aren’t going to use the channel EQ, they might as well take it out of the signal path. Since every circuit adds some small amount of noise, you can avoid adding it by not having that circuit in the path at all. Consider that each EQ adds some noise, if you remove the EQs from all 32, 48, 64, or however many channels you are using, this can add up to quite a bit of noise you are avoiding. The thought goes that you should get your sound solely from mic choice and placement. In a situation where you want the most natural sounds possible, and if you are working with acoustic instruments where a “natural sound” is desired, this may be possible. I agree that you should do everything you can to get the sounds you need with mic choice and placement, but in a live situation, it’s not always possible, and you are most likely not working with cellos, violins, violas, etc. So, what is a “natural” sound for a synthesizer, electric guitar, or bass? Odds are, you are going to want to do some EQ to each one, or you will end up with a lifeless and unexciting mix. Can you imagine the average kick drum in a rock mix if you couldn’t have any EQ on it? Cheap EQ sections can sound pretty bad, but if you have good channel EQ, there’s no reason not to use it. Every board sounds different, and the EQ is a big part of this. It is one of the major things you should listen carefully to when shopping for a new mixer.

Another technique that is rather common, or at least was, among the purists,  is to put all of the channel faders at the +/-0 line, and do all of the mixing with the mic trim pots. I’m not real sure where this technique came from, other than the “purists” see a point on the fader where it is neither attenuating or boosting, and they figure that is the “natural” (or “neutral”) spot. However, if you read one of my earlier posts, you may remember that, on instruments that need to be quieter in the mix, this can result in added noise, since you are turning it down at the trim pot, and then running the fader at 0. Whatever noise is added by the channel’s electronics would be better reduced by getting a good strong signal through the channel, and then running the fader at -15dB, or where ever you need it. In my opinion, it is far better to get as hot of a signal as you can coming in to the channel. During sound check, have the player go through his loudest part, and use the PFL meter to set the input level to 0VU and do your mixing with the channel fader. That way, you have plenty of signal to work with, and if you are also sending monitor mixes from the FOH console, makes it MUCH easier to deal with.

A lot of the ideas that the “audio purists” have are based on situations in the mythical ‘ideal situation,’ but don’t often translate well to the real world of mixing a rock band. As always, use your ears and judge for yourself, but keep these things in mind when some “helpful” purist starts making suggestions. Try everything, and keep what works for you – just always consider every aspect and consequence of every technique you try. Otherwise, you may not know what is causing other, seemingly unrelated problems.

Sometimes I Just Don’t Get it

February 22, 2009

There are a lot of things I write in my blog that I expect to create controversy; to make people think. I know that there are some that won’t agree with some (or any) of what I say, and that’s fine. Most of the comments I get are positive, some say they don’t understand (which means either I didn’t do a very good job of writing my opinions, or maybe they just don’t want to understand). I’ve only gotten one nasty comment – and it wasn’t even about any of my political posts!

I got a comment which said “this post is bullshit” in response to something I had written, so I went to the post in question, and guess what it was:

How Loud Do You Want To Be?” was the target of this person’s anger. This post is about the most NON-controversial thing I’ve ever written, and yet someone felt strongly enough about it to take the time to express their displeasure.

For those of you who aren’t into pro-audio, or music, that post basically boils down to “make the music as loud as is appropriate for the type of music and the crowd” and gives some tips on how to deal with musicians (and drummers, too).

Oh well. I guess I can write that “politicians are a bunch of thieving liars and tyrants, who are only concerned with their own power, wealth, and importance” and that’s alright. But if I say “Don’t mix too loudly or quietly,” then it’s ‘bullshit.’

As I said: sometimes I just don’t get it.

Tools of the Trade

January 18, 2009

One area that is often overlooked is that of tools to always have in your tool kit at every show. You’ll need tools to test, and tools to fix.

You’ll need a fairly good multimeter. With this you can test the AC line voltage. If you seem to have lousy headroom, and some of your switching doesn’t work well, check the line voltage. It should be somewhere in the 115V-125V range. You usually won’t have a problem with the voltage being too high, but you will sometimes run into voltage that is on the low side, and it can affect how much headroom your power amps have. In drastic cases, it can cause distortion at nearly any volume.

You can also use it to test cables, guitar pickups, and components of gear when you have to pop the hood on something.

Also, go to Radio Shack and buy a $6 “Line Tester.” This is a real life saver (possibly literally!). It checks the outlet to make sure that none of the conductors are switched. I use these on every outlet I will have to use before I plug a single thing into them. The most common flaw they will find, which is difficult to check without one of these, is that of the neutral and ground being switched. If you try to use an outlet wired like this, you will end up with hum at the very least.

A 9V battery is a requirement. A quick, easy, and reliable test for speakers. Don’t leave it connected for long, and never use it on a compression driver! Use a jumper to connect the negative connection to the (-) side of your speaker, and briefly touch the positive side to the (+) terminal on the speaker. The cone should jump forcibly OUT. You should hear a ‘thump,’ but no scraping or rattling. Connect it to the speaker cable leading to your speaker, and all of the speaker cones should move the same direction. This is VERY important. If any of them move in while the others move out, then the one that moves in is wired out of phase. Fix it right now. It’s killing your low end.

You can also use it as a ‘down and dirty’ way to quickly check cables when you can’t get both ends close together (such as a snake you’ve already laid out). Connect the battery (-) to Pin 1 and (+) to Pin 3. Grab your multimeter and go to the other end of the cable, put your meter on a DC Voltage setting that will cover 9VDC, and you should find +9V on Pin 3 (referenced to Pin 1) and nothing on Pin 2. Connect the (+) terminal of the battery to Pin 2, go back and re-test with the meter. You should now have +9V on Pin 2 (referenced to Pin 1). You’ve just completed a very basic test of that snake channel. You haven’t tested everything that can go wrong with it, but it should pass sound. If you don’t get a reading on either Pin 2 or Pin 3 with either test, then there is a problem with the Pin 1 connection (the shield). If one gives a reading, but not the other, then the one with no reading has a problem. The problem is usually at the mixer end (the pigtail). Pull that XLR shell and examine the connection.

A soldering “iron.” Actually, I would carry two. One fairly hefty one to repair connections on larger cables, patch bays, etc. And one smaller one for mic cables and for fixing the insides of your equipment. Also, be aware that if you are doing an outdoor show when it’s chilly and windy, a smaller soldering iron may NEVER get your connection hot enough to make a good solder joint.

Solder wick, and good solder. (Don’t forget to tin your wires before soldering!!)

Pliers, needlenose pliers, vise-grips, wire cutters, a good razorblade, electrical tape, a MiniMag, or other flashlight small enough to hold in your mouth so you have both hands free.

A good selection of screwdrivers. As basic as this is, you wouldn’t believe how many people don’t carry even a basic set. You’ll need a tiny flathead for those screws in XLR shells. You’ll need a few good Phillips (or whatever matches the fasteners you used to mount all of your rack gear). Wrenches and whatever you need to take the back off of a cabinet and replace a speaker.

Spare everything.

How Loud Should a Mix Be?

January 11, 2009

The answer, of course, is a resounding “it depends.” If you are talking about a live situation, then the answer is somewhere around “whatever is appropriate for the genre of music you are mixing.” You wouldn’t mix a traditional bluegrass band at 120db, and likewise, a heavy metal act at 70db would be pretty silly.

If you are talking about mixing in a studio, then the answer is a little different. There is no “one” answer, for several reasons.

First though, consider “Fletcher Munson.” In essence, what this means is that your ears have different sensitivities at different volumes – i.e. your ear’s frequency response changes with volume. At lower volume, your ear is most sensitive to frequencies which coincidentally are those which add intelligibility to speech (2KHz – 5KHz), and at low frequencies, your ear is not very sensitive at all. At high volume, your ear is much more sensitive to low frequencies, and to a somewhat lesser degree, the high frequencies. So, at 60dB, a mix will sound thin, with no low end. Turn that same mix up to 110dB, and it will have a ton of low end and much more high frequencies.

If you are thinking that there must be a volume range somewhere in the middle where the ear has a fairly “flat” frequency response, you would be right. And that mid-level volume, that is neither too loud nor too quiet, where your ear has the flatest frequency response is around 80dB. If you get your sounds and do your initial rough mixing at 80dB, then your mix will have a frequency response that should be fairly representative. If you get your sounds at 65dB, then when you turn your mix up, you will have WAYYYY too much low end! Likewise, if you start out at 110dB, when you turn it down, your mix is going to be thin and lifeless (sounds like a commercial for a hair care product, doesn’t it?).

However, every once in while, you need to vary the volume you are mixing at, again for a couple of reasons. One is to double check your mix at different volumes, but the other is because the ear develops “ear fatigue” when listening to something at the same level for long periods of time. Never listen for too long at any one volume – it will all start to sound the same, because your ear is developing fatigue. In fact, you should completely take a break fairly often. Leave the control room, walk outside (unless the sun is shining!), get a drink, play a video game. Just do something different for a while. Then, when you return to your mix, you will “have a fresh set of ears on.”

Along with checking your mix at different volume levels as you go, you also need to check it on different speakers. Try some near-fields for a while. If you have a different set of monitors, use those for a while. Some people even have an average (i.e.-crappy) car speaker, and will listen to a mono mix on that. Play it on a system in another room. All this is to verify that the mix holds up well on a variety of speakers, at different volumes, and in different rooms. Sometimes it will sound pretty good in every situation, but sometimes you will hear something on another system that just sounds somehow wrong. Go back to the mix, fix that problem, and try again.

Don’t drink alcohol before mixing!!! Alcohol does horrible things to your hearing, PLUS is makes you much more susceptible to hearing loss. The same thing holds true to a lesser degree with caffeine, but there are limits to what you need to put yourself through to mix, and caffeine deprivation is beyond that limit. Also, lack of sleep can affect your hearing.

Notice that I have said nothing about what the band has to say while all of this is going on. There is a very good reason for that – it’s a whole ‘nuther can o’ worms which would take many more paragraphs to go into.